Recruitment takes place from the point when a business decides that it needs to employ somebody up to the point where a pile of completed application forms has arrived in the post. Selection then involves choosing an appropriate candidate through a range of ways of sorting out suitable candidates leading to interviews and other tests. Training involves providing a range of planned activities that enable an employee to develop the skills, attitudes and knowledge required by the organisation and the work required.
Attracting the right candidates to apply for a job can be an expensive process. It is even more expensive when done badly because when unsuitable candidates apply for a job, then the post may need to be re-advertised - so it is best to get it right first time.
The starting point is to carry out job analysis to identify the sorts of skills, knowledge and essential requirements that someone needs to have to carry out a job. These details can be set out in a job specification, which is passed on to recruiters - it gives them a picture of the ideal candidate.
A job description is also helpful because it sets out:
The job description can be sent out to potential candidates along with a person specification, which sets out the desirable and essential characteristics that someone will need to have to be appointed to the post.
A variety of media will be used to attract applications e.g. national newspapers for national jobs, and local papers and media for local posts.
Job advertisements set out such details as:
- location of work
- closing date of application
- how to apply
- experience required
- qualifications expected
- duties and responsibilities.
Selection simply involves choosing the right person for the job. Effective selection requires that the organisation makes the right prediction from data available about the various candidates for a post.
Research indicates that the most valid form of selection method is the use of an assessment centre where candidates are subjected to a variety of test including interviews, group exercises, presentations, 'in-tray' exercises, and so on.
Psychometric (personality) tests have become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years and are often used alongside other tests.
Interviews will be most successful when they are tightly related to job analysis, job description and the person specification.
In-tray exercises can be used for candidates to respond to work-related and other problems, which are presented to them in an in-tray to be processed.
Training for employment is very important. In a modern economy like our own the nature of work is constantly changing. New technologies mean that new work skills are constantly required. To succeed in business or in a career, people will need to be very flexible about where they work and how they work, and to constantly change the range of skills they use at work.
There are basically two types of training:
On the-job training
Employees develop and improve their work skills whilst actually doing the job in question. For example, word processor operators rapidly improve their skills by constant practice. A supermarket till operator quickly learn effective practice by working alongside a more skilled mentor.
Employers will often encourage their employees to develop their skills through off-the-job training courses. For example, a trainee may be allowed to attend a day-release course at the local college. This might apply to a wide range of different skills including hairdressing, banking, insurance, electrical work and plumbing.