Human resources are the people that work for an organisation, and Human Resource Management is concerned with how these people are managed. However, the term Human Resource Management (HRM) has come to mean more than this because people are different from the other resources that work for an organisation. People have thoughts and feelings, aspirations and needs. The term HRM has thus come to refer to an approach, which takes into account both:
- the needs of the organisation
- the needs of its people.
Training and development
Different individuals have their own needs and aspirations. HRM, therefore, involves finding out about the needs and aspirations of individual employees, for example through the appraisal process and then creating opportunities within the organisation (e.g. through job enlargement) and outside the organisation (e.g. through taking up educational opportunities at local colleges/universities) for employees to improve themselves. HRM, therefore, relates to every aspect of the way in which the organisation interacts with its people, e.g. by providing training and development opportunities, appraisal to find out about individual needs, training and development need analysis, etc.
Training – opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help the organisation achieve its objectives. Development – the provision of opportunities and courses for individuals to develop skills, knowledge and attitudes that help them to achieve personal objectives. Training and development need analysis – an analysis of the opportunities and experiences that are required for individuals to train and develop in order to meet organisational and personal objectives. A training and development plan can then be created to set out how these needs can be addressed in practical steps.
Audi has developed a training and development programme designed for technicians at the company. Technicians are appraised by their line managers to identify their personal training and development needs. They then work with professional consultants on development training activities as well as attending relevant courses either at the Audi training centre or on external courses. The technicians are able to use a multimedia based Training Needs Analysis tool that enables them to produce a Personal Development Plan automatically.