What are power distribution and transmission?

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Power transmission and Power distribution at a glance:

Power transmission is generally a large-scale motion of electricity at a higher level of voltage right from a power plant to a substation. 

On the other hand, power distribution is referred to as the conversion of higher voltage levels of electricity at a certain substation to a lower voltage which is later distributed and utilized by the public, industrial and private consumers. 

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Currently, both of them are facing several challenges. This includes, 

  • The renewable energy sources that are quite intermittent needs to be carried over to long distances and implemented into the current or existing transmission networks. 
  • The conventional power grids that generate electricity in huge amounts and provide it in a one-way direction to separate users now need to implement excess power that is produced locally in an increased manner. For instance, through solar panels on a house. To make sure that the grid will absorb all the bi-directional distributed energy resources(DERs) safely, it must incorporate intelligence. 
  • The networks require updates for improving energy efficiency. Moreover, this helps in reduced impact on the environmental issues and better handling and Elevated demand for power. 

Basically, power transmission and power distribution indicate the distinct stages of transferring electricity over to the wires and poles from generators to businesses or homes. The chief difference between the two is the level of voltage at which the electricity travels at every stage. 

Consequently, after electricity has been produced, a set of electrical wires burdens the electricity from the source of generation to residences and commercial buildings. These lines are typically found overhead. At times, you may even find them in the ground. 

This combination of power transmission and power distribution is referred to as the 'grid'. Power transmission and power distribution are basically two distinct systems or steps on the grid. 

Power transmission:

Power transmission is generally the 'interstate highway' of the delivery of electricity. It refers to a vital part of the delivery of electricity that takes bulk electricity straight from the generating sites to long distances that include substations that are nearer to the areas of demand for electricity. 

Customers can generally spot the power transmission lines stretching over to long distances attached in tall poles or large towers. The transmission lines carry larger amounts of power at a sky-high level of voltage. This level is extremely high to deliver it directly to the residences and commercial places. 

The transmission lines, substations, transformers, and several other equipment feature voltages of 100 kV(100,000 volts) and above. 

In most cases, the power that travels through the transmission system is required to reduce to a low level of voltage by the distributors of electricity prior to delivering it to businesses or residential sites. Power transmission,  especially the level of voltage that is sent by transmission lines lowered, reduced, or stepped down. This is done through transformers and then they are sent to the distribution lines that are connected appropriately with each commercial and residential building. 

Power distribution:

If power transmission is referred to as the interstate highway of the grid, power distribution is the city street. It is basically the last leg of the proper deployment of electrical powers straight from production companies to consumers.

Basically power moves on to the distribution system, at such an ideal level of voltage that it can be delivered right away to the residential and commercial places. Power District lines are generally those lines that you will see along the streets. Power distribution is that power that on turning, runs all the electrical appliances of our residential or commercial property that we use daily. This includes refrigerators, washing machines, air conditioners, heaters, etc. 

The ultimate voltage that the distribution lines carry in your neighborhoods is approximately 13 kV(13000 volts).  To be more precise, a typical household runs at 110 volts on a daily basis. 

We hope that this article helped you understand everything about power distribution and transmission.